General Reading
Surveying for General Meaning - Headings Match

Choose the correct heading for each paragraph (A - G).

Cooking And Men

Food Around The World

Changes Over Time

Processed Food

Eating Out

Social Changes

Food And Health

Looking at the text quickly to collect background information which will help you understand detailed information more easily. When you survey, you look at titles, pictures, headings, sub-headings and the general layout of the text.
Looking at the text quickly to collect background information which will help you understand detailed information more easily. When you survey, you look at titles, pictures, headings, sub-headings and the general layout of the text.


  1. We all enjoy eating food, but the thought of preparing it brings mixed reactions. Some people regard cooking as a chore while others regard it as a creative and pleasurable experience. Some men never have and never will voluntarily enter a kitchen. Other men take on cooking as a career and become highly regarded chefs in restaurants around the world.
  2. Cooking has been the subject of considerable change throughout the ages but it has undergone a major revolution in recent decades. Our ancestors saw cooking as a means of rendering raw food edible. Today we see cooking as the art of combining raw foods to maximise their taste and appeal. Many countries have distinctive cuisines that have developed from locally available food sources. Foods often reflect the climate and landform of a particular geographical location. Cuisines often reflect the sophistication and economic development of particular regions. The globalization of society has made ingredients from around the world readily available far beyond the borders of their native habitats. Travel and migration have exposed many people to different styles of cooking. Early traders specialized in non-perishable foodstuffs. European traders traveled far to the east to obtain tea and spices to enhance bland meat and vegetables. Modern refrigeration technology and air freight mean that even the most delicate of seasonal produce can appear in markets on the other side of the world within days of being harvested.
  3. Cooking was a time-consuming task when firewood had to be gathered and chopped and ingredients processed by hand in the kitchen. That is still the case for a large proportion of the world’s population. However, in wealthy societies the process of cooking has been dramatically simplified. The arrival of supermarkets some three or four decades ago made the purchasing of ingredients a one-stop job. Our grandparents made trips to the green grocer, the butcher, the baker, the fishmonger, the dairy and the grocer and had to carry the food home. The widespread introduction to homes of gas, followed by electricity, gave access to instant heat in the kitchen. Stoves became smaller, cheaper and more efficient. Electric refrigerators reduced the frequency of shopping trips. Freezers meant food could be preserved without additives or time-consuming processing. Thousands of kitchen gadgets and electrical appliances are now available to make cooking easier.
  4. Bulk processing of foods has changed the face of cooking. The task of chopping and cooking tomatoes and onions to make a sauce has been replaced by a ring-pull can from the supermarket, often at a cost saving. One of the most recent trends in marketing food is to add value before the point of sale. This means that the product can be cooked more easily by the consumer. Examples of this are marinated or crumbed meats. The most extreme level of processing is available in the form of complete frozen meals. Cooking is reduced to buy, heat and eat!
  5. But why bother to cook at all? Affordable restaurants and the fast food revolution have resulted in a generation who could happily live on professional cooking and takeaways. Workaholics would rather grab something on the run than waste time shopping, cooking and cleaning up the resulting mess in the kitchen. Many inner-city apartments are now being built without kitchens or perhaps with only space for a small fridge and a microwave oven.
  6. Exposure to changing cooking styles has resulted in various social changes. Food is often the focus of social events. Families get together and exchange news around the table, friends meet in restaurants and cafes, people entertain and celebrate with parties, barbecues, picnics and a host of other situations accompanied by food and drinks. The home was once the centre for social activity. Now these activities are often enjoyed at a public venue. The kitchen was once the hub of the home. More often now the television takes on that role. Food is a common denominator amongst people of all ages and backgrounds. People from different cultures can find out more about one another and develop greater understanding by sharing their ethnic cuisines.
  7. The results of the changes in cooking practices are starting to show on the waistlines of the developed world. Obesity is becoming a major health concern for an increasing proportion of the population. Chronic illnesses and behavioral disorders are being found to result from some of the preservatives, flavour enhancers and additives used in processed foods. Cooking started out as a way to keep us alive. Could cooking be the cause of our death in the future?
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